Article    Peer-Reviewed

Using Inverse Dynamics Technique in Planning Autonomous Vehicle Speed Mode Considering Physical Constraints

Maksym Diachuk * and Said M. Easa *
Department of Civil Engineering, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
*
For correspondence.
Highlights of Vehicles, 2023, 1(1), 29–53.
Received: 12 April 2023    Accepted: 22 July 2023    Published: 26 July 2023
This article is part of the Special Issue Feature Papers to the Inaugural Volume of Highlights of Vehicles.
Abstract
The study aims at improving the technique of planning the autonomous vehicles’ (AV) speed mode based on a kinematic model with physical restrictions. A mathematical model relates the derivatives of kinematic parameters with ones of the trajectory’s curvature. The inverse approach uses an expanded vehicle model considering the distribution of vertical reactions, wheels’ longitudinal reactions according to a drive type, and lateral forces ensuring motion stability. For analysis of the drive type, four options are proposed: front-wheel drive (FWD), rear-wheel drive (RWD), permanent engaged all-wheel drive (AWD), and 4-wheel drive with torque vectoring (4WD-TV). The optimization model is also built by the inverse scheme. The longitudinal speed’s higher derivatives are modeled by the finite element (FE) functions with nodal unknowns. The sequential integrations ensure the optimality and smoothness of the third derivative. The kinematic restrictions are supplemented by the tire-road critical slip states. Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) and the Gaussian N-point scheme for quadrature integration are used to minimize the objective function. The simulation results show a significant difference in the mode forecasts between four types of AV drives at the same initial conditions. This technique allows redistributing the traction forces strictly according to the wheels’ adhesion potentials and increases the optimization performance by about 40% compared to using the kinematic model based on the same technique without physical constrains.
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Keywords
Copyright © 2023 Diachuk and Easa. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use and distribution provided that the original work is properly cited.
Funding
This research is financially supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant No. RGPIN-2020-04667).
Cite this Article
Diachuk, M., & Easa, S. M. (2023). Using Inverse Dynamics Technique in Planning Autonomous Vehicle Speed Mode Considering Physical Constraints. Highlights of Vehicles, 1(1), 29–53. https://doi.org/10.54175/hveh1010003
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