An Open Access Journal
The Value of Sustainable Tourism Destinations in the Eyes of Visitors
The Value of Sustainable Tourism Destinations in the Eyes of Visitors
Department of Economics, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Department of Statistical Sciences “Paolo Fortunati” and Center for Advanced Studies on Tourism, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Department of Economics and Center for Advanced Studies on Tourism, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Academic Editor: Deborah Edwards
Highlights Sustain. 2022, 1(3), 202–223.
Received: 2 August 2022Accepted: 7 September 2022Published: 8 September 2022
The first objective of this study is to analyze visitors’ perceived value of four Italian small areas, that have been granted the European Regional Development Fund’s financing for developing sustainable tourism. The second objective of this work is to investigate the influences of socio-demographic and trip-related characteristics on the tourists’ assessments of the main aspects of such destinations, for detecting variables useful for market segmentation and for designing better-targeted marketing actions. These areas host protected natural reserves, historical heritage, rural or mountain traditions, and ways of life, the conservation of which is combined with local economic growth through the development of green, cultural, and slow tourism. Thus, insights on how visitors’ perceived value is configured there might provide hints useful for upgrading the local tourism supply consistently with the United Nations’ Agenda 2030 for sustainable development and the European Green Deal Strategy. Results confirm that the perceived value is a fundamental construct, as it strongly and positively influences satisfaction, intention to recommend, and destination image. The value of sustainable destinations, as perceived by visitors, is mainly based on the affective benefits that sustainable experiences provide, starting from positive social interactions making tourists feel welcomed. The tourist segment valorizing sustainable destinations is mostly composed of old people and low-income travelers, who seek basic services and facilities, as their satisfaction depends mainly on relaxing immersed in pristine nature.
Figures in this Article
sustainable tourism; perceived value; market segmentation variables; Ordinal Structural Equations Models
Copyright © 2022 Stacchini et al. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use and distribution provided that the original work is properly cited.
Cite this Article
Stacchini, A.; Guizzardi, A.; Costa, M. The Value of Sustainable Tourism Destinations in the Eyes of Visitors. Highlights Sustain. 2022, 1, 202–223. https://doi.org/10.54175/hsustain1030015
Stacchini, A., Guizzardi, A., & Costa, M. (2022). The Value of Sustainable Tourism Destinations in the Eyes of Visitors. Highlights of Sustainability, 1(3), 202–223. https://doi.org/10.54175/hsustain1030015
Petrick, J.F. Development of a Multi-dimensional Scale for Measuring the Perceived Value of a Service. J. Leis. Res. 2002, 34, 119–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2002.11949965
Rzepka, C.; Berger, B.; Hess, T. Why Another Customer Channel? Consumers’ Perceived Benefits and Costs of Voice Commerce. In Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2020, Maui, HI, USA, 7–10 January 2020; Scholarspce: Honolulu, HI, USA, 2020; pp. 1–10. Available online: https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/server/api/core/bitstreams/fc16e5de-a705-48c0-b1a5-9888525e2966/content (accessed 7 September 2022).
Oliver, R.L. Value as Excellence in the Consumption Experience. In Consumer Value: A Framework for Analysis and Research; Holbrook, M.B., Ed.; Routledge: London, UK, 1999; pp. 43–62.
Lapierre, J. Customer-perceived value in industrial contexts. J. Bus. Ind. 2000, 15, 122–145. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620010316831
Zeithaml, V.A. Consumer perceptions of price, quality and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. J. Mark. 1988, 52, 2–22.
Oviedo-García, M.Á.; Castellanos-Verdugo, M.; Vega-Vázquez, M.; Orgaz-Agüera, F. The Mediating Roles of the Overall Perceived Value of the Ecotourism Site and Attitudes Towards Ecotourism in Sustainability Through the Key Relationship Ecotourism Knowledge-Ecotourist Satisfaction. Int. J. Tour. Res. 2017, 19, 203–213. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2097
Rodrigo, P.; Turnbull, S. Halal holidays: How is value perceived by Muslim tourists? Int. J. Tour. Res. 2019, 21, 675–692. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2290
Reichenberger, I. C2C value co-creation through social interactions in tourism. Int. J. Tour. Res. 2017, 19, 629–638. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2135
Kallmuenzer, A.; Peters, M.; Buhalis, D. The role of family firm image perception in host-guest value co-creation of hospitality firms. Curr. Issues Tour. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2019.1611746
Hamari, J.; Hanner, N.; Koivisto, J. Why pay premium in freemium services? A study on perceived value, continued use and purchase intentions in free-to-play games. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 2020, 51, 102040, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.102040
Snoj, B.; Pisnik Korda, A.; Mumel, D. The relationships among perceived quality, perceived risk and perceived product value. J. Prod. Brand 2004, 13, 156–167. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420410538050
Bajs, I.P. Tourist Perceived Value, Relationship to Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions: The Example of the Croatian Tourist Destination Dubrovnik. J. Travel Res. 2015, 54, 122–134. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287513513158
Iniesta-Bonillo, I.; Sánchez-Fernández, R.; Jiménez-Castillo, D. Sustainability, value, and satisfaction: Model testing and cross-validation in tourist destinations. J. Bus. Res. 2016, 69, 5002–5007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.04.071
Pearce, D.G. Toward an Integrative Conceptual Framework of Destinations. J. Travel Res. 2014, 53, 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287513491334
Eid, R. Integrating Muslim Customer Perceived Value, Satisfaction, Loyalty and Retention in the Tourism Industry: An empirical study. Int. J. Tour. Res. 2013, 17, 249–260. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1982
Eid, R.; El-Gohary, H. The role of Islamic religiosity on the relationship between perceived value and tourist satisfaction. Tour. Manag. 2015, 46, 477–488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.08.003
Chi, X.; Lee, S.K.; Ahn, Y.-J.; Kiatkawsin, K. Tourist-Perceived Quality and Loyalty Intentions towards Rural Tourism in China. Sustainability 2020, 12, 36–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093614
Murphy, M.; Pritchard, P.; Smith, B. The destination product and its impact on traveller perceptions. Tour. Manag. 2000, 21, 43–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00080-1
Cohen, S.A.; Duncan, T.; Thulemark, M. Lifestyle Mobilities: The Crossroads of Travel, Leisure and Migration. Mobilities 2015, 10, 155–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450101.2013.826481
Alonso-Almeida, M.; Borrajo-Millán, F.; Yi, L. Are social media data pushing overtourism? The case of Barcelona and Chinese tourists. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3356. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123356
Benner, M. The Decline of Tourist Destinations: An Evolutionary Perspective on Overtourism. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3653. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093653
González-Pérez, J.M. The dispute over tourist cities: Tourism gentrification in the historic centre of Palma (Majorca, Spain). Tour. Geogr. 2020, 22, 171–191. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2019.1586986
Ioannides, D.; Gyimóthy, S. The COVID-19 crisis as an opportunity for escaping the unsustainable global tourism path. Tour. Geogr. 2020, 22 , 624–632. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1763445
Rollins, R.; Dearden, P.; Fennell, D. Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas. In Parks and protected areas in Canada: Planning and management; Dearden, P., Rollins, R., Needham, M., Eds.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2016; pp. 391–425.
Weber, M.; Groulx, M.; Lemieux, C. J.; Scott, D.; Dawson, J. Balancing the dual mandate of conservation and visitor use at a Canadian world heritage site in an era of rapid climate change. J. Sustain. Tour. 2019, 27, 1318–1337. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2019.1620754
Neto, F. A new approach to sustainable tourism development: Moving beyond environmental protection. Nat. Resour. Forum 2003, 27, 212–222. https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-8947.00056
Hatipoglu, B.; Alvarez, M.D.; Ertuna, B. Barriers to stakeholder involvement in the planning of sustainable tourism: The case of the Trhace region in Turkey. J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 111, 306–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.059
United Nations Environment Programme. Making Tourism More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Makers. UNEP: Paris, France, 2005.
Roberts, C.; Reynolds, J.; Dolasinski, M.J. Meta-Analysis of Tourism Sustainability Research: 2019–2021. Sustainability 2022, 14, 3303. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063303
Spindler, E.A. The history of sustainability: The origins and effects on a popular concept. In Sustainability in Tourism; Spindler, E.A., Ed.; Springer Gabler: Wiesbaden, Germany, 2013; pp. 9–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-8349-7043-5_1
Ibnou-Laaroussi, S.; Rjoub, H.; Wong, W.-K. Sustainability of Green Tourism among International Tourists and Its Influence on the Achievement of Green Environment: Evidence from North Cyprus. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5698. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145698
Burford, G.; Hoover, E.; Velasco, I.; Janouskova, S.; Jimenez, A.; Piggot, G.; Harder, M.K. Bringing the “missing pillar” into sustainable development goals: Towards intersubjective values-based indicators. Sustainability 2013, 5, 3035–3059. https://doi.org/10.3390/su5073035
Siakwah, P.; Musavengane, R.; Leonard, L. Tourism governance and attainment of the sustainable development goals in Africa. Tour. Plan. Dev. 2019, 17, 355–383. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2019.1600160
Integra ZaVita. Environmental Report. Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Interreg Central Europe 2021-2027 Programme, March 2021. Available online: https://www.interreg-central.eu/Content.Node/discover/Interreg-CE-2021-27-Environmental-Report-final.pdf (accessed 7 September 2022).
Kirkby, J.; Curtius, J.; Almeida, J.; Dunne, E.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Franchin, A.; Gagné, S.; Ickes, L.; Kürten, A.; et al. Role of sulphuric acid, ammonia and galactic cosmic rays in atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Nature 2011, 476, 429–433. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10343
Downs, C.A.; Cruz, O.T.; Remengesau, T.E. Sunscreen pollution and tourism governance: Science and innovation are necessary for biodiversity conservation and sustainable tourism. Aquat. Conserv. 2022, 32, 896–906. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3791
Li, G.; Li, W.; Jin, Z.; Wang, Z. Influence of Environmental Concern and Knowledge on Households’ Willingness to Purchase Energy-Efficient Appliances: A Case Study in Shanxi, China. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1073. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041073
Stacchini, A.; Guizzardi, A.; Mariotti, A. Smoothing down arbitrariness in planning: From SWOT to participatory decision making. Land Use Policy 2022, 119, 106213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2022.106213
Guizzardi, A.; Stacchini, A.; Costa, M. Can sustainability drive tourism development in small rural areas? Evidences from the Adriatic. J. Sustain. Tour. 2021, 30, 1280–1300. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2021.1931256
Rasoolimanesh, S.M.; Dahalan, N.; Jaafar, M. Tourists’ perceived value and satisfaction in a community-based homestay in the Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site. J. Hosp. Tour. Manag. 2016, 26, 72–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.01.005
Frías-Jamilena, D.M.; Castañeda-García, J.A.; Del Barrio-García, S. Self-congruity and motivations as antecedents of destination perceived value: The moderating effect of previous experience. Int. J. Tour. Res. 2018, 21, 23–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2238
Moon, H.; Han, H. Tourist experience quality and loyalty to an island destination: The moderating impact of destination image. J. Travel Tour. Mark. 2019, 36, 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2018.1494083
Hatfield, G.; Allred, S. Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2012.
Chang, L.-L.; Backman, K.F.; Huang, Y.C. Creative tourism: a preliminary examination of creative tourists’ motivation, experience, perceived value and revisit intention. Int. J. Cult. Tour. Hosp. Res. 2014, 8, 401–419. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-04-2014-0032
Ramseook-Munhurrun, P.; Seebaluck P.; Naidoo, V.N. Examining the Structural Relationships of Destination Image, Perceived Value, Tourist Satisfaction and Loyalty: Case of Mauritius. Procedia Soc. 2015, 175, 252–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.1198
De Oliveira Santini, F.; Ladeira, W.J.; Sampaio, C.H. Tourists’ perceived value and destination revisit intentions: The moderating effect of domain-specific innovativeness. Int. J. Tour. Res. 2018, 20, 277–285. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2178
Cheng, T.-M.; Lu, C.-C. Destination Image, Novelty, Hedonics, Perceived Value, and Revisiting Behavioral Intention for Island Tourism. Asia Pac. J. Tour. Res. 2013, 18, 766–783. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2012.697906
Baloglu, S.; McCleary, K.W. A model of destination image formation. Ann. Tour. Res. 1999, 26, 890–897. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0160-7383(99)00030-4
Kim, H.; Chen, J.S. Destination image formation process: A holistic model. J. Vacat. Mark. 2016, 22, 154–166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766715591870
Dadgostar, B.; Isotalo, R.M. Content of City Destination Image for Near-Home Tourists. J. Hosp. Leisure Market. 1996, 3, 25–34. https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v03n02_03
Yilmaz, Y.; Yilmaz, Y. Pre- and post-trip antecedents of destination image for non-visitors and visitors: A literature review. Int. J. Tour. Res. 2020, 22, 518–535. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2353
Katsikatsou, M.; Moustaki, I.; Yang-Wallentin, F.; Jöreskog, K.G. Pairwise likelihood estimation for factor analysis models with ordinal data. Comput. Statist. Data Anal. 2012, 56, 4243–4258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csda.2012.04.010
Shapiro, S.S.; Wilk, M.B. An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 1965, 52, 591–611. https://doi.org/10.2307/2333709
D’Agostino, R.B. Transformation to normality of the null distribution of g1. Biometrika 1970, 57, 679–681. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/57.3.679
Geary, R.C. Moments of the ratio of the mean deviation to the standard deviation for normal samples. Biometrika 1936, 28, 295–307. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/28.3-4.295
Foldnes, N.; Grønneberg, S. The Sensitivity of Structural Equation Modeling With Ordinal Data to Underlying Non-Normality and Observed Distributional Forms. Psychol. Methods 2021. https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000385
Grønneberg, S.; Foldnes, N. Factor Analyzing Ordinal Items Requires Substantive Knowledge of Response Marginals. Psychol. Methods 2022. https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000495
Mangal, S.K. Statistics in Psychology and Education, 2nd ed.; Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd: Delhi, India, 2004.
Williams, P.; Soutar, G.N. Value, Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions in an Adventure Tourism Context. Ann. Tour. Res. 2009, 36, 413–438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2009.02.002
Berg, N. Non-Response Bias. In Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, 2nd ed.; Kempf-Leonard, K., Ed.; Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2010; pp. 865–873.
De Vellis, R.F. Scale development: Theory and applications; Sage: Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012.
Albayrak, T.; Meltem, C.; Nesli, Ç. Tourist shopping: The relationships among shopping attributes, shopping value, and behavioral intention. Tour. Manag. Persp. 2016, 18, 98–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.01.007
Oleksy, T.; Wnuk, A. Catch them all and increase your place attachment! The role of location-based augmented reality games in changing people—place relations. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2017, 76, 3–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.008
Duman, T.; Mattila, A.S. The role of affective factors on perceived cruise vacation value. Tour. Manag. 2005, 26, 311–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2003.11.014
Rittichainuwat, B.N.; Chakraborty, G. Perceptions of importance and what safety is enough. J. Bus. Res. 2012, 65, 42–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.013
Oh, H. Service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer value: A holistic perspective. Hosp. Manag. 1999, 18, 67–68.
Gill, D.; Byslma, B.; Ouschan, R. Customer Perceived Value in a Cellar Door Visit: The Impact on Behavioural Intentions. Int. J. Wine Bus. Res. 2007, 19, 257–275. https://doi.org/10.1108/17511060710837418
Kim, S.H.; Holland, S.; Han, H.S. A Structural Model for Examining How Destination Image, Perceived Value, and Service Quality Affect Destination Loyalty: A Case Study of Orlando. Int. J. Tour. Res. 2013, 15, 313–328. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1877
Petrick, J.F. The Role of Quality, Value, Satisfaction in Predicting Cruise Passengers’ Behavioral Intentions. J. Travel Res. 2004, 42, 397–407. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287513513158
Bradley, G.L.; Sparks, B. Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer Value: A Longitudinal Study of Timeshare Owners. J. Travel Res. 2012, 51, 191–204. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287510396099
Lin, Z.; Chen, J.; Filieri, R. Resident-tourist value co-creation: The role of residents’ perceived tourism impacts and life satisfaction. Tour. Manag. 2017, 61, 436–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.02.013
Wu, H.-C.; Li, T. A Study of Experiential Quality, Perceived Value, Heritage Image, Experiential Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions for Heritage Tourists. J. Hosp. Tour. 2017, 41, 904–944. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348014525638
Suhartanto, D.; Brien, A.; Primiana, I.; Wibisono, N.; Triyuni, N.N. Tourist loyalty in creative tourism: the role of experience quality, value, satisfaction, and motivation. Curr. Issues Tour. 2019, 23, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2019.1568400
Yen, C.-H.; Teng, H.-Y. Celebrity Involvement, Perceived Value, and Behavioral Intentions in Popular Media-Induced Tourism. J. Hosp. Tour. 2015, 39, 225–244. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348012471382
Abbasi, G.A.; Kumaravelu, J.; Goh, Y.-N.; Dara Singh, K.S. Understanding the intention to revisit a destination by expanding the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Spanish J. Mark. 2021, 25, 282–311. https://doi.org/10.1108/SJME-12-2019-0109
Dolničar, S. Beyond “Commonsense Segmentation”: A Systematics of Segmentation Approaches in Tourism. J. Travel Res. 2004, 42, 244–250. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287503258830
Lee, Y.-K.; Kim, S.Y.; Chung, N.; Ahn, K.; Lee, J.-W. When social media met commerce: a model of perceived customer value in group-buying. J. Serv. Mark. 2016, 30, 398–410. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-04-2014-0129
Li, J.; Bonn, M.; Kim, J.-H. A latent class segmentation analysis of gamblers in a gambling destination. J. Dest. Mark. 2020, 16, 100–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100433
Iordanova, E.; Stylidis, D. International and domestic tourists’ a priori and in situ image differences and the impact of direct destination experience on destination image: the case of Linz, Austria. Curr. Issues Tour. 2017, 22, 982–1005. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2017.1346588
Chen, V. A qualitative pilot study exploring tourists’ pre- and post-trip perceptions on the destination image of Macau. J. Travel Tour. Mark. 2019, 36, 330–344. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2018.1541777
Tölkes, C. Sustainability communication in tourism–A literature review. Tour. Manag. Persp. 2018, 27, 10–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2018.04.002
Zawadka, J. Preferences and Behaviors of the Elder People Resting in Valuable Natural Areas. In Cultural Tourism in a Digital Era; Katsoni, V., Ed.; Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2015; pp. 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15859-4
Güler, E.Ö.; Güler, H.; Börüban, C. The travel preferences of elderly travelers living in Adana. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 2017, 26, 109–124. https://doi.org/10.17494/ogusbd.41675
Pérez-Cabañero, C.; Cervera-Taulet, A.; Schlesinger, W. Analysis of the impact of length of stay on the quality of service experience, satisfaction and loyalty. Int. Rev. Public Nonprofit Mark. 2017, 14, 253–268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12208-016-0172-9
Garín-Muñoz, T.; Moral, M.J. Determinants of Satisfaction with an Urban Tourism Destination: The Case of Barcelona. J. Rev. Glob. Econ. 2017, 6, 113–128. https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-7092.2017.06.10
Alananzeh, O.A.; Masa’deh, R.; Jawabreh, O.; Al Mahmoud, A.; Hamada, R. The impact of customer relationship management on tourist satisfaction: The case of radisson blue resort in aqaba city. J. Environ. Manag. Tour. 2018, 9, 227–240. https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v9.2(26).02
Yeh, T.-M.; Chen, S.-H.; Chen, T.-F. The Relationships among Experiential Marketing, Service Innovation, and Customer Satisfaction-A Case Study of Tourism Factories in Taiwan. Sustainability 2019, 11, 10–41. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041041
Highlights of Sustainability Editorial Office
Avenida Madrid, 189-195, 3-3
08014 Barcelona, Spain
08014 Barcelona, Spain
Tel. +34 93 138 23 89
Tel. +34 93 138 23 89
Highlights Sustain., ISSN 2696-628X, Published by Highlights of Science